Artocarpus integer

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Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
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Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
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Agathis macrophylla
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Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
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Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
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Related Links
Detail of trunk and fruits.
© Gentry A.
Ripe fruit cut open.
© Gentry A.

Local names:
Burmese (sonekadat), English (jack tree,cempedak), Hindi (kathar,kathal), Indonesian (baroh,chempedak,campada,campedak), Javanese (comedak,cempedak,campedak), Malay (chempedak,baroh,bankong), Tamil (chakka,pilual), Thai (champada), Vietnamese (mit to nu)

Artocarpus integer is a large tree with a dense crown, reaching a height of 15 m or more; the cylindrical stem is rounded at the ends; bark grey-brown to dark brown with warty excrescences; blaze pale pink to yellow, exuding a copious milky latex when cut.

Inflorescence solitary, axillary, cauliflorous or ramiflorous, on short, leafy shoots; male heads cylindrical, 3-5.5 cm x 1 cm, whitish-yellow, peduncle 3-6 cm long; female heads with simple filiform styles, exserted to 1.5 mm.

Leaves obovate to elliptic, 5-25 cm long and 2.5-12 cm wide, with cuneate to rounded base; margin entire; pointed tip and 6-10 pairs of lateral veins curving forward; leafstalk 1-3 cm long. 

Fruits cylindrical to almost globose; 20-35 x 10-15 cm; yellowish or brown to orange-green; they hang on short, thick stalks from stems of large branches; each fruit contains many kidney-shaped seeds with a thin, white coriacous testa.

The generic name comes from the Greek words ‘artos’ (bread) and ‘karpos’ (fruit); the fruits are eaten and are commonly called breadfruit.


A. integer is an understorey tree commonly found growing in secondary and sometimes primary forests in lowland tropical rainforest areas up to 500 m altitude or sometimes higher, where there is no distinct dry season.

Native range
India, Sri Lanka

Tree management

A. integer grows fast in full light but can be raised under shelter at a slower rate, as it tolerates shade in early life. Neglect of thinning may lead to die-back. Trees fruit and bear seeds profusely, but the observed natural regeneration has not been used in management. Plantations may need to be fenced with wire netting against grazing animals.

A. integer exhibits a recalcitrant seed storage behaviour; no whole seed or excised embryo remains viable when the mean seed mc is reduced to 30.2% and the embryo mc to 25.7%. Seed are stored in pits covered with about 5 cm dry earth. There are 40-50 seeds/kg.

A. integer is an understorey tree commonly found growing in secondary and sometimes primary forests in lowland tropical rainforest areas up to 500 m altitude or sometimes higher, where there is no distinct dry season.

A. integer can be raised by direct sowing or planting nursery-raised container seedlings. Fresh seeds record germination rates of about 75%. It can also be propagated vegetatively by budding or suckle-grafting on seedling rootstocks of other Artocarpus species. Natural regeneration has not been attempted.

A. integer is well suited for reforestation in association with other species such as Tectona grandis (in India) and Eucalyptus platyphylla (in Java).

  The unripe fruit is used as a vegetable or is made into pickle; ripe fruit is eaten fresh or preserved in syrup. The fruit contains large seeds enclosed in a yellow, juicy sheath with a strong flavour. The 2 common fruit varieties are kapa and barka. The former has a sweet, fleshy, crisp pericarp while the latter is inferior and has a thin mucilage and sour pericarp. A. integer seeds are rich in starch and are eaten.

In Kerala and Bengal in India, the leaves are lopped for fodder. Ripe fruit is fed to cattle; elephants eat the bark, leaves and fruit.

A. integer is a good fuelwood; the calorific value of moisture-free heartwood is 5369 kcal/kg of wood.

Fibre:  The bark can be used for rope making.

Timber:  Wood, sold under the trade name jack, is as strong as teak (Tectona grandis), takes a good polish, saws and works easily, and is durable under water. It is generally not attacked by fungi and termites.

Tannin or dyestuff: The bark contains tannin. With alum, the extract of heartwood provides a yellow dye that is moderately fast on silk. This dye is used in colouring the saffron-coloured robes of Buddhists.

Gum or resin:  A resin exudate from the tree is used as a varnishing material and as birdlime.

Intercropping:  A. integer has been planted in conjunction with cash crops such as Carica papaya, in taungya or cooperative reforestation systems.

Latex or rubber:  The latex from A. integer has no value.