Gnetum costatum

Invasive species Disclaimer

In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here.

For more information on this subject, please refer to
100 of the World's worst Invasive and Alien Species.




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Abelmoschus moschatus
Acacia aneura
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Acacia aulacocarpa
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Acacia elatior
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Acacia laeta
Acacia lahai
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Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia mellifera
Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica
Acacia pachycarpa
Acacia pennatula
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
Acacia tortilis
Acacia xanthophloea
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
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Aegle marmelos
Afzelia africana
Afzelia quanzensis
Agathis macrophylla
Agathis philippinensis
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus excelsa
Ailanthus triphysa
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia amara
Albizia anthelmintica
Albizia chinensis
Albizia coriaria
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia julibrissin
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia odoratissima
Albizia procera
Albizia saman
Albizia versicolor
Albizia zygia
Aleurites moluccana
Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia stuhlmannii
Allanblackia ulugurensis
Alnus acuminata
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Alnus japonica
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus rubra
Alphitonia zizyphoides
Alstonia boonei
Alstonia congensis
Alstonia scholaris
Altingia excelsa
Anacardium occidentale
Andira inermis
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
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Anogeissus latifolia
Anthocephalus cadamba
Antiaris toxicaria
Antidesma bunius
Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria cunninghamii
Arbutus unedo
Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
Aucomea klaineana
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta indica
Azanza garckeana
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Local names:

Dioecious tree, 15-20 m tall; bark reddish-brown outside, tan inside.  

Leaves obovate to elliptical, 15-18 cm long, thin, slightly thicker than in G. gnemon, yellowish when dry, tapering at both ends, petiole 0.5 cm, secondary nerves bent, joining.

Male inflorescences solitary, axillary, simple, yellowish, 6-7 cm long, whorls with hairs and sessile flowers remote, 3 mm broad, male flowers with tender long-exserted sporophyll (stamen), female flowers sterile, ovate, beaked, finely whitish pubescent, up to 10 in a ring.  Female inflorescences similar, their flowers immersed in dense whitish hairs, flowers long-acuminate, finely whitish pubescent.

Fruit nut-like, obliquely-fusiform, 4 cm x 1 cm, red or pink, tapering at base, acuminate at top, its outer envelope thin, fleshy, showing the longitudinal ribs of the hard middle envelope when dry.

Seed fusiform, furrowed.

Ecology

The tree occurs in rain forests at altitudes up to 1350 m.  It is common on ridge tops, along or near river banks and also in secondary or distrubed forest.  In New Guinea the species is commonly found in mixed forest of Lithocarpus, Anisoptera and Hopea species.  It does not occur in swamps or in areas with a high water table.  Areas experiencing both wet and dry seasons seem to be ideal for the species.

Native range

Tree management

 

 

The tree occurs in rain forests at altitudes up to 1350 m.  It is common on ridge tops, along or near river banks and also in secondary or distrubed forest.  In New Guinea the species is commonly found in mixed forest of Lithocarpus, Anisoptera and Hopea species.  It does not occur in swamps or in areas with a high water table.  Areas experiencing both wet and dry seasons seem to be ideal for the species.

 

 Fruits, often with the leaves and inflorescences (both male and female) are boiled with other vegetables together in one pot and served.  The fruits require a longer time to boil than those of G. gnemon in order to remove the bitter taste.  Coconut milk is normally added to improve the taste. The kernels, leaves and inflorescences contain starch (40-45%) and protein (8-10%).

Fibre: The inner bark provides a fibre which is used for making string bags known as 'bilum'.  A similar fibre is also extracted from other Gnetum species, that of G. gnemon being most commonly used.

Timber: The wood is of no commercial value.