Millettia dura

Invasive species Disclaimer

In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here.

For more information on this subject, please refer to
100 of the World's worst Invasive and Alien Species.

Species Index    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Multiple Criteria Search

Abelmoschus moschatus
Acacia aneura
Acacia angustissima
Acacia aulacocarpa
Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia catechu
Acacia cincinnata
Acacia crassicarpa
Acacia elatior
Acacia erioloba
Acacia etbaica
Acacia ferruginea
Acacia glauca
Acacia holosericea
Acacia karroo*
Acacia koa
Acacia laeta
Acacia lahai
Acacia leptocarpa
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii*
Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia mellifera
Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica
Acacia pachycarpa
Acacia pennatula
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
Acacia tortilis
Acacia xanthophloea
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
Adansonia digitata
Adenanthera pavonina
Aegle marmelos
Afzelia africana
Afzelia quanzensis
Agathis macrophylla
Agathis philippinensis
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus excelsa
Ailanthus triphysa
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia amara
Albizia anthelmintica
Albizia chinensis
Albizia coriaria
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia julibrissin
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia odoratissima
Albizia procera
Albizia saman
Albizia versicolor
Albizia zygia
Aleurites moluccana
Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia stuhlmannii
Allanblackia ulugurensis
Alnus acuminata
Alnus cordata
Alnus japonica
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus rubra
Alphitonia zizyphoides
Alstonia boonei
Alstonia congensis
Alstonia scholaris
Altingia excelsa
Anacardium occidentale
Andira inermis
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Anogeissus latifolia
Anthocephalus cadamba
Antiaris toxicaria
Antidesma bunius
Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria cunninghamii
Arbutus unedo
Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
Aucomea klaineana
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta indica
Azanza garckeana
Related Links
Millettia dura tree on ICRAF campus, Nairobi
© AFT team
Millettia dura pods
© AFT team

Local names:
English (milletia)

Millettia dura is a small tree up to 13 m tall, DBH 35 cm. Young stems brownish pubescent.

Leaflets 15-19, oblong, 8-9 cm long x 2-3 cm wide glabrous, except on the margins and midribs; leaf base asymmetric, tip acuminate. Leaf stipules strap shaped, 8 mm long, leaf rachis pubescent, up to 20 cm long; petiole 3-5 cm long; petiolules 3-4 mm long. Leaf stalk base has a pulvinus.

Flowers in pendulous, brown pseudoracemes, up to 15 cm long, peduncle 5 cm, floral bracts oval 1-2 mm long, pedicels up to 13 mm. Calyx brown pubescent; tube 6 mm. Corolla mauve; standard white, silky outside, 25 mm long. Ovary 18 mm long, pubescent 8-11 ovulate.

Pod flat, dehiscent, 14-20 cm long, up to 21 mm wide, glabrescent.

Seeds ellipsoid, oblique, funicle dilated proximally.

M. dura is easily confused with M. ferruginea. The generic name is after C. Millet, c.1830, an officer of the East Indian company. The specific epithet ‘dura’ reflects the locality from where the first botanical collection was made: the Dura River in Kibale forest Uganda.


M. dura is naturally found in upland evergreen forest margins and remnants.

Native range
Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Tree management

M. dura is a fairly fast growing tree. Can be managed by lopping, coppicing and pollarding.

There are 6 000-10 000 seeds per kilogram. Germination is very good – up to 80% in 20 days. Soaking in cold water for 6 hours and seed coat nipping improves germination. Seed storage behaviour is orthodox but should be kept dry and insect free. Ash may be added to reduce insect damage.

M. dura is naturally found in upland evergreen forest margins and remnants.

Seeds are sown in pots or directly.

Poison:  Parts of the plant are reportedly poisonous.

This species is fast growing and drought resistant once established  a good candidate for afforestation endeavours.

Erosion control:  An important tree for soil conservation and improvement.

The leaves can be fed to livestock.

The tree is an important source of firewood and charcoal.

Timber:  The wood is tough and resistant to termites. Used for poles and tool handles.

Shade or shelter:  M. dura is an important shade tree in East Africa.

Ornamental:  A beautiful tree suitable for avenue planting and gardens, spectacular in bloom.

The termite resistant poles are good for fencing.

Soil improver:  The leaves are good mulch material and manure.

Intercropping:  M. dura is intercropped with tea for shade and soil improvement.