Climate-smart, Tree-based, Co-investment in Adaptation and Mitigation in Asia

Project Timeframe:
Mar 2014 to Mar 2017

Related country(s)

Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam


International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD)

Project goals and rationale

Smallholding farmers in Asia and the Pacific are exposed to financial and environmental risks from changes to the climate and their vulnerability is increased owing to weak capacity to adapt to the changes. Yet these farmers are crucial in providing food for some of the world’s fastest-growing and largest populations.Smart Tree-invest is an action research project that aims to improve the livelihoods and resilience of smallholding farmers by reducing their vulnerability to climate change.

Smart Tree Activities

Sites and Link with IFAD Loan Projects in Indonesia, Vietnam, and The Philippines

Smart Tree-Invest research activities applies the landscape approach, in which project sites are redefined as ‘clusters’ beyond their administrative boundaries. Each cluster shares similar biophysical (i.e. farming system, ecosystem services’ potential), anthropogenic (e.g. ethnicity, migratory status) and social characteristics.

Smart Tree-invest applies the Capacity Strengthening Approach to Vulnerability Assessment (CaSAVA) framework, developed by the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF)CaSAVA is not only applied for assessing the vulnerability and resilience of male and female smallholders, but also act as the capacity strengthening tools that allows smallholders to reflect on local conditions 
 Indonesia SummaryPhilippines SummaryViet Nam Summary
LocationBuol District, Central Sulawesi ProvinceLantapan Municipality, Bukidnon Province 
Huong Lam Commune, Ha Tinh Province, and Huong Hoa Commune, Quang Binh Province
Total Clusters3 clusters (2 clusters in Buol Watershed and 1 cluster in the north coast of District)3 clusters (3 sub-watersheds within Manupali Watershed)2 clusters (Huong Lam and Huong La)
Major commodities:

Crops: paddy, corn, patchouli, chili, beans, vegetables
Tree-based: cacao, clove, coconut, nutmeg, coffee, large-scale oil-palm plantation

Crops: Ricefield, Corn, Beans, Vegetables, Sugarcane, Large-scale banana and pineapple plantation
Tree-based: Lanzones, Durian, Mangosteen, Brazilian Fire Tree, Coffee, Eucalyptus, Falcata, Gmelina, Mahogany, Abaca

Crops: Paddy rice, maize, sweet potato, cassava, green beans, banana, green tea
Tree-based: Acacia, Aquilaria crassna, pomelo, Dalbegia tonkinensis in small woodlots

Environmental and agricultural problemsDrought, land degradation, coastal degradation, plant pests and disease, commodity price fluctuationSoil degradation, Flood, Drought, Typhoon Pablo, Water Quality and Quantity, plant pest and disease, decline in price of agricultural products, high price of agricultural inputStorms, Drought, Flash Floods, Landslides, cold spells, Declining water quality and quantity in Ho Ho watershed, Plant pests and diseases, price fluctuation of agricultural products and input, limited households saving
Potential co-investment of Ecosystem Services
  • Biodiversity conservation (protected forest)
  • Watershed management
  • Coastal Management
  • Good agricultural practices
  • Biodiversity conservation (protected forest)
  • Watershed management
  • Good agricultural practices


  • Forest protection and enrichment
  • Agroforestry development on sloping land
  • Home garden improvement


Potential co-investor of Ecosystem Services (ES)

ES Providers: Smallholder farmers living in the upstream watershed and coastal area
ES Beneficiaries: Village and District government (public fund)

ES Providers: Smallholder farmers living in the upstream watershed
ES beneficiaries: Large-scale banana and pineapple companies in the area and National hydroelectric power company

ES Providers: Forest landowners (smallholder farmers, State Forest Organizations, and Commune’s People Committees)
ES Beneficiaries: Ho Ho Hydropower Company and Potable water utility of Huong Khe township - Ha Tinh province

smart tree partner