- Development of national carbon accounting and monitoring systems that are in compliance with Tier 3 IPCC reporting guidelines;
- Development of technical capacities at (sub)national levels to contribute to national carbon accounting and monitoring systems;
- Design of REDD mechanism in 5 pilot areas in western, central and Eastern Indonesia through:
C1. Baselines setting: nesting local baselines in national policies
C2. REDD payment and distribution mechanism in the pilot areas
The increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate since 2000 has, based on recent estimates , been due to three factors: increasing global economic activity ( 65 ± 16%), increasing carbon intensity (emissions per unit activity) of the global economy (17 ± 6%), and an increase in the ‘airborne fraction' of CO2 emissions through reduction in oceanic and terrestrial sinks. The land-use based emissions in Asia (now exceeding those in Latin America) contribute about 10% of global emissions and bring below-average economic benefits per unit emission. They thus are a prime target for emission reduction, if the political will can be mustered and institutional bottlenecks be addressed. With additional global benefits from protecting tropical forests, this issue is a priority for the EU.
Indonesia is at the centre of interest of the current debate on reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation because it has, over the past decade, regarded as the country with the third highest emissions (and the number 1 for land-use based emissions, with per capita emissions some 30% above those in the EU), although there is considerable debate and uncertainty over the numbers. As host of the recent Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC, Indonesia has taken an active role in the debate on fair and efficient mechanisms and economic incentives to reduce the emissions, in as far as they do not contribute to real and sustainable economic growth. The below-average economic benefits per unit emission from land-use change in Indonesia suggest that economic incentives can be attractive for all. Given the diversity of settings in Indonesia across the main islands, national policies will require differentiated implementation and ‘pilots' to reflect the full range of environmental, social and economic contexts.
Currently, government of Indonesia lacks necessary skills and know-how to independently develop and implement credible carbon accounting system that can be used in the negotiation for REDD incentives at an international level. The overall objective of the ALLREDDI action is to assist Indonesia in accounting for land-use based greenhouse gas emissions and to be ready to use international economic ‘REDD' incentives for emission reduction in its decision-making at the local and national levels.
The ALLREDDI action embraces the roles and responsibilities of the main levels of (sub) national government through the following specific objectives:
- Developing national carbon accounting systems that comply with Tier 3 of the IPCC guidelines for AFOLU, complementing and maximizing existing efforts;
- Developing and strengthening national and sub-national capacity in carbon accounting and monitoring; and
- Designing operational REDD mechanisms in five pilot areas spread geographically, socio-economically and culturally across Indonesia based on local constraints and opportunities and in conjunction with local development planning.