Abelmoschus moschatus

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Abelmoschus moschatus
Acacia aneura
Acacia angustissima
Acacia aulacocarpa
Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia catechu
Acacia cincinnata
Acacia crassicarpa
Acacia elatior
Acacia erioloba
Acacia etbaica
Acacia ferruginea
Acacia glauca
Acacia holosericea
Acacia karroo*
Acacia koa
Acacia laeta
Acacia lahai
Acacia leptocarpa
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii*
Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia mellifera
Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica
Acacia pachycarpa
Acacia pennatula
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
Acacia tortilis
Acacia xanthophloea
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
Adansonia digitata
Adenanthera pavonina
Aegle marmelos
Afzelia africana
Afzelia quanzensis
Agathis macrophylla
Agathis philippinensis
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus excelsa
Ailanthus triphysa
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia amara
Albizia anthelmintica
Albizia chinensis
Albizia coriaria
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia julibrissin
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia odoratissima
Albizia procera
Albizia saman
Albizia versicolor
Albizia zygia
Aleurites moluccana
Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia stuhlmannii
Allanblackia ulugurensis
Alnus acuminata
Alnus cordata
Alnus japonica
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus rubra
Alphitonia zizyphoides
Alstonia boonei
Alstonia congensis
Alstonia scholaris
Altingia excelsa
Anacardium occidentale
Andira inermis
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Anogeissus latifolia
Anthocephalus cadamba
Antiaris toxicaria
Antidesma bunius
Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria cunninghamii
Arbutus unedo
Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
Aucomea klaineana
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta indica
Azanza garckeana
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Local names:
Arabic (hhabb el misk,anbar bûl), Chinese (ye you ma,shan you ma,huang ku,huang kai), English (ornamental okra,musky-seeded hibiscus,musk okra,musk mallow,annual hibiscus,fautia,yorka okra), French (Ambretté,graine de musc,ketmie mosqué,gombo mosqué), Ge

Abelmoschus moschatus is a delightful, soft, herbaceous trailing plant, 0.5-2.5 meters high with soft hairy stems and a long slender tap root. It has an underground tuber and dies back to this tuber in the dry season, emerging again with the first substantial rains of the wet season.
Leaves alternate, rough, hairy,heart-shaped or 3-5 palmately lobed with serrated margins and linear-oblong or triangular lobes, 4-10cm x 4-9 cm.

Flowers regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hibiscus-like, usually watermelon pink but sometimes white or cream - always with a dark center, very prolific and are borne between October and April in some places, depending on the timing of the wet season.

Fruit a hirsute capsule, 6-8 cm long, ovoid-cylindrical.

Seeds subreniform and black, held in hairy, tough but papery capsules, musky-scented The generic name Abelmoschus is derived from Arabic ‘abu-l-mosk’ (father of musk) in allusion to the smell of the seeds whereas the specific epithet means ‘musk smelling’.

Ecology

Usually weedy in open and disturbed areas. In Australia, it occur  in open woodlands or grasslands, most often found on rocky hillsides but sometimes on flat lands. In Guam, it occurs in marshy locations.  In Fiji, it is found from near sea level to an elevation of about 450 m as a weed naturalized in gardens, plantations, ricefields, and clearings, and also occurring along trails and on the edges of forests.

Native range
Australia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, India, Samoa

Tree management

Ambrette is cultivated as pre-kharif crop in India. It is usually sown in March-April but as late as the first week of July in Central India. Seed rates of 41g/kg are optimum. Application of dried Neem leaves (500Kg/ha) at last ploughing increased oil content and quality. April sown crop start flowering in September; fruits ripen from November to January and are harvested when fully mature. Application of fertilizers improves growth of plant, and seed yields but some studies indicate that use of chemical inputs result in negative impact on oil content and quality. Harvested capsules are sun dried and seeds dehisce when the capsules burst. The oil for perfumery is extracted by steam distillation of crushed seeds.

Usually weedy in open and disturbed areas. In Australia, it occur  in open woodlands or grasslands, most often found on rocky hillsides but sometimes on flat lands. In Guam, it occurs in marshy locations.  In Fiji, it is found from near sea level to an elevation of about 450 m as a weed naturalized in gardens, plantations, ricefields, and clearings, and also occurring along trails and on the edges of forests.

Propagation may be from seeds, small tubers or stem cuttings. Seeds germinate readily but some difficulty is often experienced in getting the plant to establish in the ground. Sowing the seeds in situ in a well drained, rocky spot may be the best answer. The plant should be allowed to dry out when foliage dies off during the dry season.

 It is a relative of the edible Okra and tubers and foliage were a source of food for Aborigines.

Fibre: The bark is processed into fibre and e root mucilage as a sizing for paper.

Medicines: In India, roots, leaves (rarely), and seeds of ambrette are considered valuable traditional medicines. The bitter, sweet, acrid, aromatic seeds are used as a tonic and are considered aphrodisiac, opthalmic, cardiotonic, digestive, stomachic, constipating, carminative, pectoral, diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, deodorant, and effective against  intestinal complaints, stomatitis; and diseases of the heart, allays thirst and checks vomiting. According to Unani system of medicine seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharge, gonorrhea, leucoderma and itch. Roots and leaves are cures for gonorrhea.

Essential oils: Ambrette oil obtained from seeds posses an odor similar to that of musk and its aromatic constituents have long been used in perfumery industry. Different grades of essential, or aromatic absolute, are marked in Europe as high-grade perfum