Civil society campaigns, radio and social network analysis

1. Designing and evaluating civil society campaigns.

The System-wide Collaborative Action for Livelihoods and the Environment (SCALE) methodology brings value chain actors and civil society stakeholders together to plan and implement campaigns to promote new practices (USAID, 2008). By engaging with a wide range of stakeholders representing all aspects of a given system, SCALE generates change across many levels and sectors of society, using a combination of social change methodologies including advocacy, mass communication and social mobilization. We tested the SCALE approach for promoting fodder shrubs in Kenya and found it to be very effective. The approach draws various actors together into a unitary planning process, enhancing the synergy of their individual efforts and aligning systems for awareness creation, training and seed access. Acharya et al. (2010) used social network analysis to show that SCALE significantly increased the number of actions of and between key stakeholders involved in the dairy feed sector, including those providing training and seed.  

2. Evaluating radio’s role in mass agroforestry extension.

Radio is a powerful communication medium for promoting agriculture and development in rural areas. Farmers in South and Southeast Sulawesi in Indonesia report that television, cell phones and radio are the top three communication media for receiving information (Paramita et al., 2013). To test the importance of radio in mass agroforestry extension, a radio program was run under the AgFor project, with the main objective of spreading knowledge to wider audiences, including villages where the project is not operating. (Paramita et al., 2014). An evaluation of the effectiveness of the radio program is currently under way.

3. Social network analysis of smallholder farmer systems.

We are using social network in East Africa to assess and display information flows, social capital and the structure and functionality of connections between people and organizations. The analysis will also map social capital in farmer groups within different extension approaches, key resource people in a network, and changes in social capital over time.


Acharya, K., Booth, E., Wambugu, C., Karanja, E., Arimi, H. and Bender, S. (2010). How can Systems Thinking, Social Capital and Social Network Analysis help Programmes Achieve Impact at Scale? Results of a Demonstration Project in the Kenyan Dairy Sector. ICRAF Working Paper No. 116. World Agroforestry Centre.

Paramita, E., Martini, E., Roshetko, J.M., Finlayson, R.F. (2013). Media and methods of communication in agroforestry extension: Case study in South and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Paper presented at 4th Indonesia Agroforestry National Seminar, 21 Mei 2013, Malang, Indonesia.

Paramita, E, Martini, E, and Finlayson, R. (2014). Radio as mass media in agroforestry extension in Sulawesi, Indonesia: challenges and potentials. Poster presented at 3rd World Agroforestry Congress, New Delhi, February 2014.

USAID (2008).Transforming the Kenyan Dairy Feeds System to Improve Farmer Productivity and Livelihoods. A SCALE case study. USAID, Washington DC.